Saturday, September 14, 2019

Gender Roles in the United States Essay

1. Briefly discuss the history of ethnic relations in the United States. The ethnic history of the United States was long rooted during the colonial period. The first settlements in the United States were the Spanish outposts in the towns of Florida and California and a French outpost in Louisiana. English colonizers declared the United States’ independence in 1776 due to their yearning for freedom from their own country (Doane). â€Å"The class, racial, ethnic, and gender relationships of the contemporary nation have their roots in the colonial period† (Doane). Because of the failure to force Native American settlers to work on the fields, the British settlers resorted in importing African slaves to work on cotton plantations located at the South, while the Whites chose to reside on the North to further hone their emerging industries (Doane). The ethnic relations of the United States during the early years are characterized by the major issue of racism and discrimination based on skin color. During the colonial times, the poor whites and the indentured servants served as bridges for the slaves and the landlords. The poor whites tried to identify themselves with the rich landowning whites and propagated the idea of white racial identity rather than the class identity (Doane). This action in turn reinforced the racial discrimination in the country. The status, skin color and position in the labor market characterized the relationships among racial and ethnic groups. Some of the Blacks migrated northward to work on industrial jobs but disparity continued as they were paid less than the whites on comparable jobs. The Blacks also received less social benefits than the Whites reinforcing discrimination (Doane). 2. Describe the process of gender role socialization. Give examples of how females and males are trained to fulfill the expectations of their gender roles. There is a tendency for the society to mandate societal rules and determine what is right and acceptable to the people. This process is referred to as gender role socialization, wherein social institutions control the society’s expectations on â€Å"dress code, language, personality, leisure activities and aspirations for each sex† (Padavic and Reskin 53). Through this process, people learn their gender identity. The society associates well established values, attitudes, behavior, choices and performance that are appropriate for gender categories such as men and women. People are able to absorb the specific roles that the society is trying to inculcate to the members of a particular sex (Senior 25). Learning our gender roles is important in the aspect of socialization and our interaction with other people. Childhood experiences of socialization prepare the people in their gender and social roles in such a way that adult members of the society are expecting them to behave (Senior 25). Even as children, people have been trained to behave and act according to their biological sexual orientation. And as such, parents reinforce gender role socialization on their child-rearing methods. They give toy guns and robots to their male children and dolls and kitchen utensils to their female children. People may be unconsciously aware but through this method, social roles are being inculcated within the consciousness of children in the society as they become adults. Toy guns for male children depict that males should be aggressive and courageous. Boys are also more exposed to high-tech toys like PSP and Gameboy reflecting their advantage in the technological field of industry. Female children or girls, on the other hand, are encouraged to play with dolls and kitchen utensils to prepare them to their future social roles which are in charged of the household, homemaker and as domestic provider. It also encouraged the attitudes of women to become caring and nurturing. 3. Discuss the evidence, which points to either gender roles being biological or cultural in origin. Base on this evidence, what conclusions can be drawn about the origins of gender roles. Discuss some of the most important sources of gender inequalities in our society. How can these inequalities be alleviated? One of the speculated causes of the significant difference in the attitudes and social characteristics between men and women is their biological structure. It was said that genes and other biological components play a big role in influencing these social characteristics. There are biological explanations provided in an attempt to examine aggressiveness in males. It was already known that the inherent presence of Y gene in the 23rd chromosome makes males susceptible to physical disarray. However, there is no strong evidence explaining the role of genetics in the aggressiveness of individuals, particularly the males. Several indicators of violence have been found to be more evident in males than in females (Englander 122). Research further reveals the role of androgens in the prevalence of violence. Androgens are male sex hormones that are abundant in males. These hormones were indirectly linked to criminal violence and also to traditional behavior. Studies show that women with congenital adrenal hyperplasia, a medical condition in which androgens are secreted in the uterus of females, have an inclination to male tastes and preferences. Although there is no concrete evidence of the relationship between androgens and violence, it was suspected to be the reason behind men’s more aggressive behavior (Englander 123). Another biological factor that is thought to be responsible behind the violent attitude of men is the enzyme monoamine oxidase (MAO). Behavioral patterns are related to the level of MOA presence in the blood. Men are found to have lower levels of MAO than women. Lower MAO levels are associated with aggressiveness and the sudden burst of anger and frustrations, especially impulsiveness (Englander 123). Another essential factor that was believed to be responsible for the development of aggression in men and the nurturing attitude of women is the social construction or the difference in how each was reared and molded by culture and society. A person’s social environment is accountable for the values inculcated in his or her personality. His or her socially-constructed identity is viewed to be inherent with his biological sex. Difference in gender has a widespread effect in the society, which was supported by documented knowledge in socio-biology and evolutionary psychology. This collection of knowledge states that men and women are irrevocably different in bodily configurations (Taylor & Spencer 41). Such disparities in gender can be alleviated through programs that will breach the inequality in gender such as having equal opportunity on the workplace. We could also start hastening changes through campaign programs that will call for equality between genders. Works Cited Doane, Molly. 2007. â€Å"Culture of United States of America†. Advameg, Inc. 11 November 2008 . Englander, Elizabeth Kandel. Understanding Violence. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc. , 2007. Padavic, Irene and Barabara F. Reskin. Women and Men at Work, 2nd edition. Thousand Oaks, California: Pine Forge Press, 2002. Senior, Olive. Working Miracles. London: James Currey Ltd. , 1991. Taylor, Gary and Steve Spencer. Social Identities: Multidisciplinary Approaches. New York: Routledge, 2004.

Friday, September 13, 2019

Understanding the Ethics of Engineering Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Understanding the Ethics of Engineering - Essay Example If any company or organization does not behave ethically regarding any kind of business matter, various destructive effects occur as a result. â€Å"Business ethics, like most areas of ethics, often tends to focus on principles of actions, on the action itself and its consequences† (Frederick 30). In the field of engineering, ethics means the standards of moral behavior of individuals, not the standards of the engineering business as a whole. A business that behaves ethically induces other business associates to behave ethically as well (Posters). In this report regarding understanding the ethics of engineering, the factors which will be covered are ethical behaviors, importance of ethics in mechanical engineering, and various ethical issues in mechanical engineering. Ethical behavior promotes the self-respect, self-esteem, diversity and basic rights of individuals and groups of people. Personal ethics are the moral foundation on which people build their lives (Scivicque). Some examples of ethical behavior include truthfulness, fairness, respect, honesty, equality, sincerity, helping other individuals, taking care of others, obeying laws, and social values. Truthfulness is meant to inform others about any unwanted situation in order to provide them with awareness regarding the seriousness of the issue. For example, a doctor should always inform the patient about the disease even if the patient is not capable of bearing treatment expenditures. Fairness is that ethical behavior which is of extreme importance in any individual’s life. Fairness means to deal with every individual evenhandedly. For example, if a person is at a high rank, he is not supposed to make negative or improper use of his authority in any case. He should show fairness in every case which he deals with. Respect is another ethical behavior which deals with the admiration, approbation, and deference among individuals. For

Thursday, September 12, 2019

Cryptosporidium parvum Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Cryptosporidium parvum - Essay Example The parasite is adapted to harsh way of survival. This is due to its outer layer that allows it to withstand harsh environment (CDC, 2013). This conveys it some resistance once it is exposed to chlorine disinfection. The organism exists in nature and causes disease. The organism is transmitted in different ways. However, water acts as the most common way of transmission (CDC, 2013). Such water may be for drinking or recreational facilities. The mode of transmission is through fecal-oral route (Health Canada, 2001). This may be from person to person, animal to person, or food and waterborne transmission (Health Canada, 2001). The organism prevalence has been on the rise in United States. For example, from 2009 to 2010 the number of cases of cryptosporidiosis has been on the rise (Yoder, T et al. (2012). Cases were most prevalent on children aged 1-9 years and adults in a category of 25-29 years (Yoder, T et al. (2012). Moreover, the number of waterborne diseases has been on the rise in the country. A number of factors contribute to the spread of the organism. However, there are factors that majorly contribute to the spread of the organism. They include accidental swallowing something that encounters the stool of an infected person (CDC, 2013). It may also be through drinking recreational water contaminated with Crypto (CDC, 2013). One may also be infected through eating of poorly cooked food contaminated with the organism. Likewise, one may get infected by touching of mouth with contaminated hand (CDC, 2013). It may also be spread in a laboratory by naturally and experimentally infected animals (Health Canada,

Wednesday, September 11, 2019

Basque History Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Basque History - Essay Example While the ETA did declare a unilateral cease-fire on March 22, 2006, on September 23, 2006, the organization announced that it would resume hostilities until the achievement of Basque independence (ETA). To understand the sentiments at work in all three of these documents - particularly the harsh dichotomies of the Arana piece - it is good to have an understanding of the dynamics at work within the ETA. To people outside of the Basque region, and, in particular, outside of Spain, the mission of the ETA sounds just like one of many small revolutionary groups, agitating for its own few square miles of self-determination, if only to avoid the larger taxing entities in the country around it (Funes, p. 499). Each of these little splinter groups has its own manifesto that spouts idealistic words and phrases, its own shrill anthem that sounds to the modern person listening from abroad much like, quite frankly, the declarations that leapt from the American colonies to the government of Great Britain in the later days of the eighteenth century. The modern chapter of the Basque story begins during the reign of Francisco Franco, and his attempts to drive the Basque nation off the very face of the planet. Because there had been Basque sympathizers with the Republican side in the Spanish Civil War, Franco decided to eliminate any signs of Basque culture from the public consciousness. The Basque flag could not be displayed; Basque holidays could not be publicly celebrated; teaching the Basque language, or even speaking it in public, were forbidden; baptizing children who did not have Spanish surnames was proscribed (Sullivan, p. 88). This crackdown against non-Spanish cultures was not carried out throughout the country, however. While Guipuscoa and Biscay were also singled out for this attempted annihilation of local culture, because of their ostensible sympathies with the Republican cause, other territories were left alone. Because the regions of Alava and Navarre had been allied with Franco's faction during the Spanish Civil War, those regions were permitted to keep a reasonable degree of self-government (Clark 1984, pp. 82-84). The results of this cultural attempt at extermination may have been predictable. Once the civil war ended, many Basques left the rural parts of Castile, Galicia, Extremadura, and Andalusia, which diluted the identity of those regions, in which only a percentage of the initial Basque population remained (Hamilton, p. 138). The rest of the world, however, took notice of this repressive activity. Beginning with the excesses of the Franco era and ending with the transition in Spanish government to a democracy in 1975, the ETA received gestures of sympathy from around the globe. The peak of this support came in 1970, after the controversial "Burgos Trials," in which the Franco government showed its cruel and oppressive side to an international audience (Clark 1984, p. 128). The tide of international opinion, however, began to turn against the ETA as the 1970's progressed. In 1973, the ETA assassinated Franco's successor, Almirante Luis Carrero Blanco, and became increasingly radical after Spain became a democracy. The kidnapping and assassination of Miguel Angel

Tuesday, September 10, 2019

Corporate Governance and Ethics Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3500 words

Corporate Governance and Ethics - Case Study Example In addition to that it also explains the causes of failure of the leaders of GSK in preventing ethical issues related to integrity failures. Task 2 explains bribery as an ethical issue particularly for companies undertaking international business. It also investigates the ethical and moral issues of bribery and the difficulties that cultural relativism introduces to business ethics. And finally task 2 comments on the steps that GSK should take in order to prevent future ethical dilemmas and reputational damage from perceived failures of ethical and moral conduct. Table of Contents Table of Contents 3 Introduction 4 PART A 4 PART B 7 Conclusion 10 Works Cited 11 Name of the Student Name of the Professor Course Number Date Introduction â€Å"The primary and only responsibility of business is to use its resources and engage in activities designed to increase its profits so long as it stays within the rules of the game† - Milton Friedman (37) Ethics is a critical factor in the fie ld of corporate governance and henceforth to the performance of a corporation. It can be associated in two different ways via ethical values and assumptions that support a specified regime or code of corporate governance. ... The following section in this report will explain the theories of ethics and corporate governance from the perspective of a pharmaceutical company. PART A 1. It is evident from the case study that there have been quite a few ethical lapses as far as the corporate governance of GlaxoSmithKline is concerned. In the last decade, cases of ethical lapses have been witnessed in pharmaceutical companies. The company was accused of lapses in bribery, fraud and corruption, product safety, false marketing and advertising. Pharmaceutical companies were alleged to have breached the regulatory standards by selling and marketing products which did not meet the criteria specified by the board (Institute of Business Ethics, â€Å"Business Ethics Briefing†). As explained above, GlaxoSmithKline had similar ethical lapses. After studying the report carefully it can be suggested that the company fraudulently managed study designs in order to obtain favourable results. In addition to that, they ha ve concealed results which were unflattering and were against the company’s favour. The company also failed to update people with the negative results thereby producing drugs which were detrimental to the health of the patients. GlaxoSmithKline was accused of hiding information related to the side effects of certain drugs produced by them. Promoting the usage of ‘off – label’ drugs has also been witnessed which led to misuse of medicines. Another ethical lapse noticed in the strategies adopted by the company is the use of promotions such as medical education programs, advisory boards, speaker events and grants. They were accused of using grants to promote drug

Individual reflective assessment Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Individual reflective assessment - Essay Example many skills and the module ‘Academic Skills for Accountancy’ has helped me a lot in developing some of the skills required for the profession of auditing. Following are skills related to accounting that I have developed throughout the module. One of the most important skills for an auditor is to be able to critically evaluate the audit evidence obtained as a result of the audit procedures which include inquiries from the management, observation of the procedures done by management and inspection of accounting records. Through this semester, I have developed this skill significantly. The course has introduced me to specifics of the skills required for critical evaluation of evidence. For the forthcoming year, I plan to develop this skill by conducting further research on the audit and by studying practical examples regarding audits of significant entities. One of the most important areas that would be focused would be of professional scepticism. Professional scepticism is the ability of an auditor to keep a questioning mind and this attitude helps the auditor not to generalize the results of the evaluation of evidence obtained. I would learn how to develop professional scepticism. An ability every accountant must have is the ability to analyse the information provided and to draw conclusions with sufficient rationalization. The same skill is also important for an auditor because it is the responsibility of an auditor to analyse the evidence obtained and to provide a reasonable assurance backed by rationalized conclusions. The semester helped me significantly in improving this ability (Cottrell 2008). In accounting, each transaction has a dual effect therefore if any one part of the transaction is not recorded, it can be traced from the other part. Thus, everything in the financial records becomes linked and the missing links can be found by analysing the recorded information. The same skill is also highly important for the profession of auditing. Since this is

Monday, September 9, 2019

Prepare a research proposal for a research project in the area of Dissertation

Prepare a research proposal for a research project in the area of management (including accounting, finance and management scien - Dissertation Example Job Descriptions are lists of the general tasks, or functions, and responsibilities of a position. Job Analysis is necessary for all the functions of Human Resources and better performance in these areas lead to Organizational Development, so we can say that Job Analysis directly, indirectly or eventually leads to Organizational Development. Organization Development (OD) is defined as the process of improving organization. The process is carefully planned and implemented to benefit the organization, its employees and its stakeholders. The current study is at Nestle. This study is conducted to show the significance of Job Analysis for organization development. The reason behind choosing this topic is that I have interest in this topic. This was the most significant criteria for me. Doing the thesis needs a lot of time and the quality of life will be enhanced if these hours are utilized pleasingly. Moreover, the quality of research, writing, and arguments will be much better if I feel genuine passion for my work. This research would be beneficial both for University (name your college/university) and Nestle as it would improve the relations. These professional relationships can help Nestle to hire best talent from (name of your college/university) as their talented human resources. LITERATURE REVIEW: Job Analysis is the systematic process of determining the skills, duties and knowledge required for performing the jobs in an organization (Mondey & Noe, 2006). Traditionally it is an essential and pervasive human resource technique and the starting point for other human resource activities. In today’s rapidly changing work environment, organizations extensively rely on Job Analysis practices in order to enhance Organizational Development. New jobs are being created and old jobs are being redesigned and eliminated. Organizations that want to develop tailor jobs according to changing needs and thus Job Analysis is reviewed. In 1991, Ronald, Lawrence, & Goldberg discussed Job Analysis as the systematic procedure of collecting and analyzing information about jobs. Job Analysis consists of two elements: a Job Description and Job Specification. A Job Description is a written description of the activities that have to be performed. Generally, a Job Description also contains information about tools and equipment used in the job and about the working conditions. So job descriptions specify the job content and the job context. The Job Specification indicates which specific skills, competences, knowledge, capabilities and other physical and personal attributes one must have to perform the job successfully. An acronym that is used to describe which types of attributes are referred to in job analysis is KSAO: Knowledge, Skills, Abilities and Others characteristics (Ronald, Lawrence, & Goldberg, 1991). Job Analysis has been one of the most useful tools for gathering information and developing content valid and legally defensible selection procedures for a wide variety of jobs (Harvey, 1991). When job analysis is used for building the human potential and it is analyzed and reviewed according to the changing requirements of the organization it finally leads to organizational development. DeSimone & Werner (2006) defines organizational