Wednesday, December 4, 2019
Scalping and market clearing Essay Market clearing according to the classical economist involves the process of adjusting prices in order to achieve equilibrium price and quantity, this is a situation whereby the quantity demanded will equal the quantity demanded, and this point will give us the equilibrium price and also equilibrium quantity. When the market is not at equilibrium there is need to adjust the price so as to achieve the equilibrium, this is what is referred to as market clearing.  However the market is not always at equilibrium and market forces such as the demand and supply adjusts its self automatically, this is given by the law of demand and supply where when the quantity demanded is high then the level of prices rises and therefore the demand declines, when supply is high then prices will go down discouraging suppliers and therefore adjusting quantity supplied. Scalping involves the process of recommending high prices on a security or in our case tickets shortly after having acquired the tickets at a lower price and when the prices go up the individual will sell the ticket at a high price and therefore make a profit. Sporting event tickets: We will write a custom essay sample on Scalping and market clearing specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Scalping and market clearing specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Scalping and market clearing specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer In our case all tickets for a stadium have been sold at a price lower than the normal market price, in this case there is need for market clearing in order to shift the market is not at Ã equilibrium, the following diagram shows the case where all the tickets have been sold at a lower price than the equilibrium market price: nbsp; From the above diagram the equilibrium price is Pe and the equilibrium Quantity is Qe, however the tickets were sold at a lower price than the equilibrium price, in this case the price was P1 and the quantity demanded was Q1, excess demand was Q1 minus Qe, the price was lower by Pe minus P1, the equilibrium point determines the equilibrium price and equilibrium quantity, the equilibrium point is the point where the supply curve will intersect with the demand curve and in our case it is Qe and Pe. Scalping: In the case where there is scalping, ticket holders will gain in the process, due to the high demand the price of tickets will rise, people will tend to buy the tickets at high prices, the ticket holders will therefore gain in the process whereby they will sell their tickets at higher prices than the price they originally bought them, the diagram below shows the process of scalping and the total gain. In the above diagram Pe represents the equilibrium price and also Qe represent the equilibrium quantity, Pa in diagram 2 represents the price after Scalping, this price after scalping is quite high than the original price the holder of the tickets had acquired them, this price therefore will lead to profits to the ticket holder. The values of profit the ticket holder will get is the difference in buying price and selling price and multiply that with the number of tickets bought, as a resulting of scalping the holders o the ticket ill get a profit and those who buy later will loose by buying at a very high price. Scalping is the process of making value out of creating demand for goods and services, the value of tickets is made to rise by the increased demand of these tickets, the profit will be to the ticket holders and the loss will be to those who buy the tickets after the prices have gone up. The process of scalping is termed as illegal by many governments because it involves enticing people to buy by creating a situation that people will prefer certain goods and services as to gain value in the near future, as people demand the goods and services the prices goes up as the law of demand depict that as the demand of a commodity increases the prices will rise because the demand will exceed quantity supplied. The market however has its own automatic adjustment mechanism whereby as the demand raises the price rises and when the price rises demand goes down. Conclusion: Scalping is a process of recommending high future prices on a security or in our case tickets shortly after having acquired the tickets at a lower price and when the prices go up the individual will sell the ticket at a high price and therefore make a profit. Market clearing is the process of adjusting prices in order to achieve equilibrium price and quantity, this is a situation whereby the quantity demanded will equal the quantity demanded, and this point will give us the equilibrium price and also equilibrium quantity. When the market is not at equilibrium there is need to adjust the price so as to achieve the equilibrium, this is what is referred to as market clearing. In the case where tickets were all sold at a low price than the equilibrium price level, it is clear that the price will eventually rise as demand for this tickets rises, when this happens the ticket holders have the opportunity to make profit from the difference in the price levels which give them this opportunities, therefore the ticket holders will gain while those who buy the tickets after the rise in price will loose.
Wednesday, November 27, 2019
In the old days, the telecom industry was viewed as an example of Ã¢â¬Å"natural monopoly. Ã¢â¬ This was due to increasing returns to scale, where the telecom services could only be provided efficiently by a monopoly provider. In the U. S. , this pattern started many years ago when the American Bell Telephone purchased the Western Electric Company of Chicago. Alexander Graham Bell patented the telephone in 1876 and formed Bell Telephone. ATT, which is today one of the leading company in the wireless telecommunication industry, was formed in 1885 to connect the Bell Companies. In 1913, ATT agreed to become a regulated monopoly. Although their monopoly was allowed, they were required to connect competing local companies and let the Federal Communication Commission to approve their prices and policies. In January of 1982, ATT agreed to break itself into a national long-distance carrier and seven Ã¢â¬Å"baby bellsÃ¢â¬ in order to end the long-running antitrust suit by the U. We will write a custom essay sample on Telecommunication Industry or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page S. Department of Justice. The break occurred in 1984. At the time of the breakup of ATT, almost all telephone companies were monopolies and the increased growth toward competition The cost reductions have made access to the Internet affordable to the general public. However, in the wireless market, while more people are able to get new devices, companies may try to cap their data usage. For example, at Verizon, they changed their data plans from unlimited usage to capped plans. This is Ã¢â¬Å"partially due to rising bandwidth costs from data-hungry subscribe, making the switch to tiered plans inevitable. Network expansion is another area of the wireless sector that can lead to transactions costs. A good example is Sprint plans to expand its network from the WiMax to the LTE, which is expected to take place in 2013. All main competitors already are into the LTE network. This switch Ã¢â¬Å"is expected to cost Sprint $4 and $5 billion, though the investment could deliver over twice that in economic benefit to the company, if this bet pays off better than the money it put on WiMax did. Ã¢â¬ Through this example we can see how there are most than just the cost of expanding the network itself, but anything else that is involved until its completion.
Sunday, November 24, 2019
How does the temperature of a squash ball affects the impact time of the ball drops from a certain height Essays
How does the temperature of a squash ball affects the impact time of the ball drops from a certain height Essays How does the temperature of a squash ball affects the impact time of the ball drops from a certain height Essay How does the temperature of a squash ball affects the impact time of the ball drops from a certain height Essay If is greater with impact time being constant, the average must be greater. When temperature of the squash ball is low, it is quite soft and easy to be deformed. The impact time is hypothesized to be longer. As temperature increases, the squash ball will become more rigid and deform less. The impact time is hypothesized to be shorter. Since, when the impact time is smaller with net force being constant, the average force must be greater. Therefore, with the two effects, the average force of the impact is hypothesized to be greater when temperature increases.Method and materials.Experiment (a)Since there is originally no any equipment that can measure the extremely short impact time, therefore I had to develop several ideas to measure the time. These are the six possible solutions:1. Stroboscopic photosThe negative is put under long exposure. And the experiment is supposed to be performed in a dark room otherwise the negative will be over expose. Stroboscope is needed to give the flas hes at a very high frequency. Under which, the images of the falling ball including the impacting period will be taken. We will then count the numbers of images that are touching the ground (impact period). With the frequency shown on the stroboscope, we can then calculate the impact time of the squash ball.However there is limitation of the experiment. The impacting images may pack too close to each other that we cannot distinguish the number of them and fail to calculate the correct value.Moreover stroboscopic photos are difficult to be taken well. It requires skill to control the exposure so that the photos taken will not be too bright or too dark for observation. Therefore the suggestion was abandoned.2. Ultrasonic position sensor (UPS)Place a UPS on the ground; drop the ball from certain height to it. The UPS is connected to a computer for receiving data. A graph of distance against time will be plotted automatically. By observing the length of time when the distance is at zero , we can know the impact time of the ball.However, later I acknowledged that the speed of the ultrasonic waves is not fast enough to measure the fast dropping object to give accurate results. Therefore the suggestion was abandoned.3. Conduction sensorFix a piece of foil on a dense plate (cutting board), on the surface place another piece of foil closely but without touching the first one. Both foils are connected to a scalar timer with wires. The ball is then dropped onto the upper foil, pressing the foil and closing the circuit. When the ball rebounds, the upper foil releases and disconnects the circuit. The impact time can be indirectly collected from the conduction time. As this experiment was easier to perform, I used the set up to find a rough impact time of about 0.01s~0.05s. This result can be then used as a assumption value for other suggestion.However, it was suggested that the upper foil may obstruct the falling speed of the ball. This leads to an experimental error of the results. Moreover after the ball rebounds and leaves the upper foil, the foil may still in touch with the lower foil due to deformation. The impact time we get may be over estimated.4. Light sensorSet up a light sensor on the table with the light beam just situate above the table surface. Then drop the ball to cut the beam. The time that the light sensor obtains is the impact time.However, as the light beam has finite thickness, it is not accurate enough to measure the impact time. The ball may cut the beam too early and leave too late which over estimate the impact time. Furthermore, it is difficult to ensure the ball drop exactly to the light beam by its lowest point. The results may not be accurate.5. Formula and calculationFirst we need to measure the dropping height, e.g. A cm. Then we drop the ball and at the same time start to count the time using a timer. When the ball rebounds to the highest point we stop the timer and at the same time record the highest point it reaches, e.g. B cm. let the total time for the process be C seconds. From the formula s=ut +(1/2) at2. We then substitute distances B and C to find out the time need for dropping and rebounding.But deficiencies are still being found for this alternative. There is reaction time error in working the timer. The reaction error is even larger than the impact time. Also, the highest point the ball reaches may not be accurately detected. So the measurement is considered not working.6. Digital-video camera approachUse the camera to take the impacting images of the ball. Then replay the film to find out the time of impact. As we found out that the impact time is around 0.03Final decisionAfter series of consideration, I made the final choice to use the option 3. Despite its limitation that may lead to over estimation of results, I found the problems that may occur in No.3 least essential. Moreover stretching the upper foil a little can reduce the deformation of the upper foil. So this measuring method was selected.Experimental set up.In the experiment I prepared the following material for the setting up.MaterialsKettle, clamp, chopsticks, squash balls, stand, towel, scalar timer, aluminium foil, aluminium tape, plastic tape, wire, clips, cutting board, a pack of unused paper card.MethodsFirst of all, Impact Time Measuring Device (ITMD) was made as core of the set up:Aluminium foil was stuck to the cutting board until its upper surface was completely filled up by the tape. I then check the conduction of the foil to ensure no gaps between each strip of tape. Then an 8x8cm2 hole was made from 10x10cm2 paper card. A piece of 8x9cm2 foil was then stretched on the middle of the hole. Then I used tape to fix the foil on two ends of the hole. The paper card with the foil on top was put onto the upper surface (with foil) of the cutting without the two piece of aluminium touching each other. Then both foils were connected to two separated wires with crocodile clips and the wires were conn ected to the scalar timer. The ITMD was finished.In order to test if the ITMD was reliable, I performed several dropping test for checking. Firstly I dropped the ball at room temperature of height 140 cm; unfortunately the results each time collected were not consistent. They had differences of about 50% to 200%. Therefore I changed the setting of the paper card. I used a larger piece of foil (99 cm2) and stretched it to the four end of the paper hole. The later tests showed improvement as the differences drop to about 20% to 60%. And I thought that it may due the deformation of foil that the two foils still pressed to each other when the ball left. So I stuck another piece of paper card with hole just right beneath the original one. It was done to increase the distance between the two foils by about 0.5mm so that they are more likely to separate after the ball has left. The tests followed were more coherent as their differences were just about 10 % to 20%. Then I varies the droppin g height to see if the measurer could detect the time different (room temperature). It showed an increasing trend of impact time when the dropping height increase. That proved that it senses changes.The kettle was then used to boil the water for heating up squash balls; however it is not convenient to do in this way, so I changed to use a water bath instead. With the water bath, I could then adjust the temperature I want easily. Clamps were used to release the balls instead of the chopsticks. Firstly stand with clamp were put on the lab table. I measured 130 cm from the bottom of the ball in the clamp vertically to the centre of the cutting board. Then the squash balls were first immersed into water of 20.2oC for 10 minutes to ensure the balls were have same temperature as water. Then I used the clamp to take one from the water bath, quickly dried it with towel and transferred to the clamp on the stand, released it to the centre of the paper. Then I repeated the procedure by another nine times to collect ten data at that temperature. In between, I recorded the impact time from the scalar timer. After that I continued the experiment with an increase of 10 oC until it reached 100 oC. For the handling of hot balls, working gloves were needed.Experiment (b)MaterialsClamp, squash balls, stand, towel, scalar timer, aluminium foil, aluminium tape, plastic tape, wire, clips, cutting board, a pack of unused paper card, water bath, working gloves.1. Same platform (cutting board with paper card) in experiment (b) was used to make the condition of two experiments more constant. Pieces of blank papers were first placed along the drop ping track of the ball on the side of the lab table. The balls were taken from the water bath of the temperatures as Experiment (b), dried, transferred to clamp and dropped to the cutting board quickly. The highest points it reached after the rebound were marked onto the papers. I repeated ten times for each temperature. Finally measuring tape was used to measure the rebound height of each temperature.Data CollectionDropping Height=130.0 + 0.1cm1. Temperature=20.2 + 0.4 o CTrial12345678910MeanRebound height/cm1818.104.22.1688.418.418.618.8191918.5+0.2Impact time/0.001s191920202020212224240.0209Uncertainty of height=0.1cm Uncertainty of time=0.001sMean height = (18+18.22+18.43+18.6+18.8+192)/10 = 18.5 cm + 0.2cmUncertainty =Mean impact time =Uncertainty =2. Temperature=30.0+0.4oCTrial12345678910MeanRebound height/cm27.227.427.427.427.827.828.428.428.628.627.9Impact time/0.001s161920202021222324240.0209Uncertainty of height=0.1cm Uncertainty of time=0.001sMean height = (27.2+27.43+27.82+28.42+28.62)/10 = 27.9 + 0.2 cmUncertainty =Mean impact time = (20.9 + 1.3) 10-3sUncertainty =3. Temperature = 40.0+ 0.4oCTrial12345678910MeanRebound height/cm35.835.836.336.436.436.436.436.436.636.836.3Impact time/0.001s1719202121212222232421Uncertainty of height=0.1cm Uncertainty of time=0.001sMean height = (35.82+36.3+36.45+36.6+36.8)/10 = 36.3+0.2cmUncertainty =Mean impact time =( 21+1.1) 10-3sUncertainty =4. Temperature = 50.0+0.4oCTrial12345678910MeanRebound height/cm4144.644.844.844.844.8454545.445.644.6Impact time/0.001s1819191920212223232420.8Uncertainty of height=0.1cm Uncertainty of time=0.001sMean height = (41.0+44.6+44.84+45.02+45.4+45.6)/10 = 44.6+ 0.7cmUncertainty =Mean impact time = (20.8+0.9) 10-3sUncertainty =Trial12345678910MeanRebound height/cm51.651.851.8525252.252.252.652.65452.3Impact time/0.001s1719192021212121222320.45. Temperature = 60.0+0.4oCUncertainty of height=0.1cm Uncertainty of time=0.001sMean height = (51.6+51.82+522+52.22+52.62+54)/10 = 52.3+0.4cmUncertainty =Mean impact time = average time = (20.4+0.9) 10-3sUncertainty =6. Temperature = 70.0+0.4 oCTrial12345678910MeanRebound height/cm60.460.660.661.661.861.862.662.662.863.261.8Impact time/0.001s1619192020202121222420.2Uncertainty of height=0.1cm Uncertainty of time=0.001sMean height = (60.4+60.62+61.6+61.8+62.62+62.8+63.2)/10=61.8+0. 4cmUncertainty =Mean impact time= average time = (20.2+1.3) 10-3sUncertainty =7. Temperature = 80.0+0.4 oCTrial12345678910MeanRebound height/cm6868.869.269.269.870.670.871.672.673.670.4Impact time/0.001s1717182121212222232320.5Uncertainty of height=0.1cm Uncertainty of time=0.001sMean height = (68.0+68.8+69.2+69.8+70.6+70.8+71.6+72.6+73.6)/10 = 70.4+0.9cmUncertainty =Mean impact time = average time =( 20.5+0.8) 10-3sUncertainty =8. Temperature = 90.0+0.4 oCTrial12345678910MeanRebound height/cm74.674.876.8777777.677.877.878.478.877.1Impact time/0.001s161920202021212223251.4Uncertainty of height=0.1cm Uncertainty of time=0.001sMean height = (74.6+74.8+76.8+772+77.6+77.8+78.4+78.8)/10 = 77.1+0.7cmUncertainty =Mean impact time = average time = (20.7+1.4) 10-3sUncertainty =9. Temperature = 100.0+0.4 o CTrial12345678910MeanRebound height/cm8080.880.881.48282.682.882.883.48482.1Impact time/0.001s1920202020232121212521Uncertainty of height=0.1cm Uncertainty of time=0.001sMean height = (80.0 +80.82+81.4+82+82.6+82.82+83.4+84)/10 = 82.1+0.6cmUncertainty =Mean impact time = average time =(21+0.9) 10-3sUncertainty =ObservationThe size of the squash ball increased as temperature increased.At high temperatures ;80 oC, the surface of the squash ball became rough as some of the rubber skin of the squash ball was boil away.AnalysisThe impact time against the temperature:Unlike my hypothesis, the result of the impact time of the ball showed no obvious change when temperature increased. Moreover the pattern of the trend was not the way I thought where it was hypothesized to increase as temperature increase.The graph of rebound height against temperature:The rebound height showed obvious increase as temperature. The results fit with the hypothesis. The rate of increase of rebound height was quite constant from temperature 20 o C to 80 o C. Then it started to decrease from temperature 80 o C to 100 o C.At the time of impact, the force diagram of the ball is like this:There were two forces acting on the ball, one is the normal force acted by the ground, the other one is the gravitational force acted by the earth. Since net force of the ball, therefore the force acted by the groundTemperature of squash ball / o C20.230405060708090100Average force acted on the squash ball by the ground /N22.214.171.124.19.59.910.110.210.2From the graph of force acted on the ball against temperature. I found that the highest increase rate of force occurring at temperature at around 20-30o C, high increase rate continued from 20-65 o C. The rate of increase slowly decreased as it approached temperature greater than 70 o C and finally showed no change around 100 o C. By drawing a line of symmetry from the top of the trend line, we could observe that the highest average force the ground acting on the ball to be about 10.2N.DiscussionAverage forceAs stated , the graph showed a maximum average of ~10.2N. It suggested that if the velocity of the squash ball is hold constant, the average fo rce that can be exerted to a squash ball by a stationary impacting surface will be at maximum when temperature around 95o C.However the average force will not drop to zero when temperature drops to absolute zero. Since the average force acted on the ball by the ground , it is always ;0 because the velocity of the ball is changing. According to the Newtons first law of motion, every body continues on it state of rest of uniform speed in a straight line unless acted on by a nonzero force. At the point of impact, the ball accelerates upward. The only force that points upward is the normal force by the ground. Although there may be a possibility that the ball drops and sticks to the ground at extreme low temperature, causing the ?t to be infinite, but still there is the opposing force acts by the ground again the weight of the ball. So the average force by the ground must at least equal to 9.810.023 which is ~0.23N.In addition, the rate of increase of average force acted by the ground i s believed to fall at the lower temperature. As shown in the graph above, the trend line is pointing toward zero at temperature-273. We have explained that the trend will not be zero even when the temperature is -273. One possible way will be a turning point located somewhere between -273 to 20o C. And if there is a turning at that certain point, the rate of increase must be lower at that point.Rebound heightThe rate of increase of rebound is quite constant until at 80 o C it decreased. Theoretically the trend line will approach 130cm when temperature goes to infinity. However it is not possible because squash ball will melt at high temperature. For the low extreme, the squash may not rebound properly as the low temperature may constrict the plastic layer of squash ball, making it deforms, losing it quality. It is just a prediction and is difficult to perform in the school lab.Impact timeThe impact time showed no relation with the range of temperature set for experiment. The set up may not be sensitive to sense the different.Relation of force and energy at the impactThe potential energy of the ball was changed to kinetic energy before the impact; some of the energy was lost to the air friction. At the impact, some of the kinetic energy was transferred to heat energy of the ground and the ball. Some of it was transferred to the sound energy. It lost his energy and rebounded to a lower height. Those energy did lose in the impact was transferred to build up the shear modulus (elastic energy) of the ball. The greater the elastic energy is the higher the ball rebound.Evaluation of the experimentThe experiment was considered successful as the data showed a direct relationship between average force and temperature of the squash ball and a decreasing rate of increase of average force when the temperature increases. However the impact times collected were about the same which contradicted to my hypothesis. They were not even in sequence. That may due to the deficiency of the experimental set up. The foils might still connect together a short time after the ball had left. Although the time is short compared to the impact time, it changed for every impact. Therefore the impact time I got was not in a trend but about the length. it may also due to the insensitivity of the set up. After all I still managed to get the approximate impact time for the calculation of average force.For the rebound height experiment, it was quite good. There was little problem such as the imprecise way of recording rebounding height by using eye observation.On the whole, there were many systematic errors in both experiments that may affect the results. For examples, the size of the ball increased as temperature increased, it might have increased the impact time of the ball due to larger impacting area. It was possible to be the reasons for the unsuccessful for the impact time results. This might also affect the rebound height of the experiment.The foil on the cutting board reduced the velocity before impact. It might have reduced the rebound height and the impact time of the ball. The average force might have been over estimated or under estimated depends on the extent of reduction of the rebound height and impact time.Heat lost rate increased as temperature of ball increased. That suggested that the rebound height should be at the lower temperature. The rebound heights were over estimated for the higher temperature. The impact times were also affected in a certain degree.ImprovementRenew the upper foil whenever it deforms to avoid over estimation of impact time. However it may be inconvenient.Change to another method in measuring the impact time. e.g. light sensor.For the measuring of the rebound height, we can ask a partner to observe the rebound ball at the same level to improve accuracy. We can also do more repetitions for more data.Drop the squash balls directly without transferring them to the clamp on the stand. However high delicacy is need t o ensure the dropping height is right and not initial force is applied to the ball.ConclusionThe results of the experiment stated that there are changes of average force acted on the ball by the impact surface with the velocity of ball hold constant. The maximum average force will be reached at temperature around 95oC. This proved that the hypothesis to be true. However the hypothesis for the impact time was not proven to be true as the set up was appropriate enough to measure the data accurately.Nevertheless, the result still showed the rate of increase in average force of impact at different. By using the data we can know that at what temperature does the squash ball work most effectively with the smallest force given. The data can also be useful for the manufacture of squash ball.
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Entrprise resource planning - Essay Example It also helps maintaining adequate inventory levels within the organization. There are three primary factors or influencers in aggregate forecast accuracy include regulation changes, economic conditions and analyst characteristics changes. 2. Explain the Outsourcing Decision process used by the major US Automotive OEMs in Shedding most component manufacturing (e.g. Delphi, Visteon), while maintaining Most Metal Stamping and Powertrain Manufacturing. Outsourcing remains firmly entrenched in the business. Therefore, companies mostly focus on the significance of the decision-making process during outsourcing. By engaging in the Outsourcing Decision Process, most US Automotive OEMs aim at increasing efficiency and saving costs in shedding component manufacturing during powertrain manufacturing and metal stamping. In doing the decision process, most OEMs tend to use the Outsourcing Decision matrix, which entails the operational performance. The processes, in this case, include forming a strategic alliance, retaining, and outsourcing. On the other hand, using the matrix tool entails first identifying the tasks strategic importance, identifying the contribution of the operational performance and plotting the automotive OEMs tasks on the matrix. A more detailed insight in reference to outsourcing decision process used by most automotive OEMs includes preparing, selecting the vendor, transition, managing relationship and reconsideration. During the preparation phase, the automotive OEMs engage in sourcing options, strategies, and the configuration activities. On the other hand, during the selection of the vendor, most automotive companies do the negotiation after choosing the vendor. The transition process entails defining the communication and knowledge exchange. It also entails assets, people and information transfer. Managing relationship, in this case, entails ensuring that the relationships last thus management of the success
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Psychology, Sleep Theories - Research Paper Example While asleep, most physiological functions of an individual such as blood pressure, heartbeat and rate of breathing decrease. It has been proved that in human beings, mammals, and a majority of other animals regular sleep is necessary in order to survive. Sleep is not a uniform process. Sleep happens in progressive stages, referred to as the sleep cycle (Tami Port, 2009).These stages show characteristic changes in the activity of brain. The cycle begins with light sleep, followed by deep sleep. Sleep is divided into two main stages, REM sleep and non-REM sleep. Here REM stands for "rapid eye movement". Non-REM sleep can be again divided into four stages. As sleep progresses from stage one to stage four, sleep becomes deeper. The third and fourth stages are often grouped together and are called slow wave sleep (SWS). When an individual is in SWS muscle and eye movements become less. Even though human beings spend almost one-third of their lives sleeping, one does not know exactly the functions of sleep. One of the major theories of sleep says that sleep is necessary for repair and restoration of the body as well as the mind. According to this theory sleep helps the body recover after an active day and gives the body the chance to restore substances that are lost while performing our daily duties. Another theory suggests that sleep has an adaptive function. According to this theory animals sleep because they need to protect themselves. However it is a known fact that sleep is a time to rest and rejuvenate and that it benefits us in many ways. When a person does not get the required amount of sleep he feels drowsy all the time, is not able to concentrate and is irritable .It has been proved that REM sleep is important for learning and memory. Many individuals complain of lack of or insufficient sleep. All of us at some time or the other have experienced this. However for many this problem is severe and
Sunday, November 17, 2019
Stem Cell Therapy - Essay Example Some stem cell researchers have advocated for the therapy in treating diseases like diabetes mellitus, ParkinsonÃ¢â¬â¢s disease, ulcerative colitis, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, multiple sclerosis and other myopathy, hematopoietic organ diseases, oncological diseases, some hereditary and genetic abnormalities (Conrad, 2012). Some success rates in stem cell therapy exist in the field of oncology where cancer patients subjected to chemoprophylaxis may at one point require bone marrow transplantation or umbilical blood stem cells. Chemoprophylaxis in cancer patients often results in the destruction of cancer cells plus even hematopoietic cells. Stem cell often helps them in restoring their normal blood cells increasing their chances of survival from the disease. Therapeutic cloning is a type of stem cell therapy. Cloning is possible through the use of embryonic stem cells. Here, an egg gets denucleated, that is, the DNA gets removed, and replaced with a somatic cell nucleus. The egg gets stimulated through the use of an electric pulse, and a blastocyst gets formed to provide stem cells that are identical to those of the original somatic cell nucleus. If implanted in the womb, the replicated embryo can be born as a cloned baby. It is through this process that Dolly the first cloned sheep was created (Conrad, 2012). Embryonic stem cell suitability for transplantation has recently been in question because of the instability of the cloned cells. Dolly, for example, gave an outward impression of full health but had many genetic defections (Wimmer 3). The process of therapeutic cloning is ineffective. A high percentage of clones die before or soon after birth with a success rate of between 3 to 4% (Conrad 2012). In as much as there have been a number of progresses in stem cell therapy, there are still a number of controversies regarding the issue. Controversies
Friday, November 15, 2019
Desmear and electroless plating Introduction Printed circuit board is used in the electronic manufacturing for mechanical and electrical support. It is electronically connects the electric components using conductive traces, carved from copper covered onto a non-conductive material. Printed circuit board are usually include copper and copper mixture materials that are coated to provide good mechanical and good conductivity with other devices in the assembly. Printed circuits board are used in all electronic equipments such as computer and mobile phones and TV and communications equipment and satellite as well as in the control of gadgets in the factories, companies and other uses of the innumerable Ã Ã t thÃ Ã µ mÃ Ã ¾mÃ Ã µnt thÃ Ã µrÃ Ã µ iÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ Ã ° ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢trÃ Ã ¾ng inÃâÃ rÃ Ã µÃ °ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢Ã Ã µ in thÃ Ã µ dÃ Ã µÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢irÃ Ã µ fÃ Ã ¾r jÃ Ã ¾int bÃ Ã µnding Ã °nd jÃ Ã ¾int bÃ Ã µnding-rigid and light Ã Ã Ã Ã ¡BÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ duÃ Ã µ tÃ Ã ¾ ÃâÃ Ã Ã µrtÃ °in mÃ °rkÃ Ã µt ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢Ã Ã µÃâÃ tÃ Ã ¾rÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢. ThÃ Ã µ inÃâÃ rÃ Ã µÃ °ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢Ã Ã µd tÃ Ã µÃâÃ hnÃ Ã ¾lÃ Ã ¾giÃâÃ Ã °l dÃ Ã µmÃ °ndÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ frÃ Ã ¾m thÃ Ã µ lÃ °tÃ Ã µÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢t hÃ °ndhÃ Ã µld dÃ Ã µviÃâÃ Ã Ã µÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ ÃâÃ Ã Ã ¾ntÃ °ining Digital ÃâÃ Ã °mÃ Ã µrÃ °ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ Ã °nd nÃ Ã µw high TV rÃ Ã µÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢Ã Ã ¾lutiÃ Ã ¾n ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ÃâÃ rÃ Ã µÃ Ã µnÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ Ã °ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ wÃ Ã µll Ã °ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ thÃ Ã µ nÃ Ã µwÃ Ã µr mÃ Ã ¾bilÃ Ã µ ÃâÃ¢â ¬hÃ Ã ¾nÃ Ã µÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ mÃ Ã µÃ °nÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ thÃ °t thÃ Ã µrÃ Ã µ iÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ Ã ° ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢urgÃ Ã µ in thÃ Ã µ rÃ Ã µquirÃ Ã µmÃ Ã µnt fÃ Ã ¾r jÃ Ã ¾int bÃ Ã µnding-rigid ÃâÃ¢â ¬Ã °nÃ Ã µlÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ Ã °nd multi-jÃ Ã ¾int bÃ Ã µnding ÃâÃ¢â ¬Ã °nÃ Ã µlÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢. ThÃ Ã µ nÃ Ã µÃ Ã µd tÃ Ã ¾ mÃ °ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ ÃâÃ¢â ¬rÃ Ã ¾duÃâÃ Ã Ã µ thÃ Ã µÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢Ã Ã µ ÃâÃ¢â ¬Ã °nÃ Ã µl tyÃâÃ¢â ¬Ã Ã µÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ Ã °nd tÃ Ã ¾ rÃ Ã µduÃâÃ Ã Ã µ thÃ Ã µ ÃâÃ Ã Ã ¾ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢t Ã Ã ¾f mÃ °nufÃ °ÃâÃ turÃ Ã µ, Ã °ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ Ã °lwÃ °yÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ hÃ °ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ drivÃ Ã µn thÃ Ã µ dÃ Ã µvÃ Ã µlÃ Ã ¾ÃâÃ¢â ¬mÃ Ã µnt Ã Ã ¾f nÃ Ã µwÃ Ã µr mÃ Ã µthÃ Ã ¾dÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ Ã Ã ¾f ÃâÃ¢â ¬rÃ Ã ¾ÃâÃ Ã Ã µÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ing. (Ã Ã¢â¬ ¦ÃâÃ hlÃ Ã µÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ingÃ Ã µr, 2002, 82) TÃ Ã µÃâÃ hniÃâÃ Ã °lly thÃ Ã µ mÃ °tÃ Ã µriÃ °lÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ invÃ Ã ¾lvÃ Ã µd in jÃ Ã ¾int bÃ Ã µnding / jÃ Ã ¾int bÃ Ã µnding-rigid PCB bÃ Ã ¾Ã °rd mÃ °nufÃ °ÃâÃ turing gÃ Ã µnÃ Ã µrÃ °tÃ Ã µ Ã ° lÃ °rgÃ Ã µ numbÃ Ã µr Ã Ã ¾f iÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢uÃ Ã µÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢. Ã Ã ¾nÃ Ã µ kÃ Ã µy ÃâÃ Ã Ã ¾nÃâÃ Ã Ã µrn iÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ thÃ Ã µ lÃ °rgÃ Ã µ use vÃ °riÃ °nÃâÃ Ã Ã µ Ã Ã ¾f mÃ °tÃ Ã µriÃ °lÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ in Ã Ã ¾nÃ Ã µ bÃ Ã ¾Ã °rd build-uÃâÃ¢â ¬ Ã °ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ wÃ Ã µll Ã °ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ thÃ Ã µ Ã Ã µxÃ Ã ¾tiÃâÃ nÃ °turÃ Ã µ Ã Ã ¾f ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢Ã Ã ¾mÃ Ã µ Ã Ã ¾f thÃ Ã µ ÃâÃ Ã Ã ¾mmÃ Ã ¾nly uÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢Ã Ã µd mÃ °tÃ Ã µriÃ °lÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢, water consupmition Ã °nd thÃ Ã µ inhÃ Ã µrÃ Ã µnt iÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢uÃ Ã µÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ thÃ Ã µy rÃ °iÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢Ã Ã µ. (Ã Ã¢â ¬ ¦ÃâÃ hlÃ Ã µÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ingÃ Ã µr, 2002, 82) PCB are inexpensive, and can be highly reliable. They require much more design effort and higher initial cost than either wire-wrapped or point-to-point constructed circuits, but are much cheaper and faster for high-volume production. Much of the electronics industrys PCB design, building, and quality control needs are set by standards (1). In 1885 before the appearance of electric circuit board and point to point production, plate of carton was used to connect the electric components with wires and it was heavy and has big volume. Before printed circuits point-to-point production was used for primary sample or small production runs wire. Circuit boards were produced in the mid-1930, by Austrian inventor Paul Eisler. During World War II the United States produced them on a huge range for use in war radios. During this period the invention remained use in the military part, and until the end of the war it became available for commercial use. Basically, each electronic component has wire, and the PCB has holes drilled for each wire of each component and the PCB carry and connects all the electric components. Printed circuit boards have copper tracks connecting the holes where the components are placed. They are designed specially for each circuit and make structure very easy. The coating on the surface of a circuit board are usually copper, created either by putting single lines mechanically, or by coating the all board in copper and remove away excess. The method of assembly is called through-hole formation. In modern circuit board production, it uses soldered in place on the board with very little hassle., this process is usually be done by putting the cool solder mixture, and baking the entire board to dissolve the components in place. Soldering could be done automatically by passing the board over wave, of molten solder in machine(1). In previous period to the creation of surface-mount technology was in the mid-1960s, all circuit boards used wire to attach components to the board. But With the removing the wires from circuit boards, circuit boards have become lighter and more efficient to produce. Multiwire Board was used during the 1980 and 1990s in that technique copper wire pre-insulated with a polyimide resin is fixed in the insulation cover by a wiring machine. Multiwire Board allows through wiring so that the number of wires be in one layer significantly increases, and consequently an high-density board can be manufactured with a smaller number of layers than an ordinary printed wire boards. In addition, as Multiwire Board uses copper wire of a uniform diameter, it is superior in various electric characteristics such as providing stable characteristic impedance. Surface-mount technology appeared in the 1960s, and became famous in the early 1980s and became widely used by the mid 1990s. Components were mechanically redesigned to have small metal tabs or end caps that could be soldered directly on to the PCB surface. Components became much smaller and component placement on both sides of the board became more common than with through-hole mounting, allowing much higher circuit densities. Surface mounting provides itself well to a high degree of automation, reducing labour costs and incrassating the conductivity and greatly increasing production and quality rates. Surface mount devices (SMDs) can be one-quarter to one-tenth of the size and weight, and passive components can be one-half to one-quarter of the cost of corresponding through-hole parts (3). The advantages of Surface mount technology are: Smaller components. Smallest is currently 0.5 x 0.25 mm. Has higher number of components and more connections per component. Fewer holes should be drilled through abrasive boards. Easy automated assembly. Small mistakes in component placement are corrected automatically (the surface tension of the molten solder pulls the component into alignment with the solder pads). Components can be putted on both sides of the circuit board. Lower resistance at the connection. Good mechanical performance under shake and vibration conditions. SMT parts generally cost less than through-hole parts. Fewer unwanted RF signal effects in SMT parts when compared to leaded parts, yielding better predictability of component characteristics. Faster assembly. Some placement machines are capable of placing more than 50,000 components per hour. And there are some Disadvantages Thermal capacity of the heat generator results in slow reaction whereby thermal profiles can be distorted. Usually some type of error, either human or machine-generated, and includes the following steps: Melt solder and component removal Residual solder removal Printing of solder paste on PCB, direct component printing or dispensing Placement and reflow of new component. Over the past few year, electronic products, and especially those which fall within the category of Consumer Electronics have been significantly reduced in physical size and weight. Products such as cellular telephones, lap-top computers, pagers, camcorders, have been reduced by as much as3/4 of their original introductory size and weight. The most significant contributing factor to this reduction has been the inclusion of fine pitch, Surface Mount (SM) components. The larger, thicker and heavier leaded Through-Hole (TH) packages. The Surface Mount (SM) was developed to give the customer with increased component density and performance over the larger Dual-Inline-Package (DIP). The SM also provides the same high consistency. The Chip Scale (CSP) was developed to provide the customer with an additional increase in component performance and density over the SM . The CSP also provides the same high reliability as the DIP and SM package Components which are used in integrated circuits (chips), resistors, and capacitors can be soldered to the surface of the board or more commonly, attached by inserting their connecting pins or wires into holes drilled in the board. The increased component density and complexity required by the electronics industry demands increasing use of multilayer PCBs which may have three, four, or more intermediate layers of copper. Printed circuit boards include motherboards, expansion boards, and adaptors. Epoxy polymers are regularly used for electric circuit board manufacturing purposes, especially for built up layers and micro-vias in modern printed circuit boards. The sticking together of the plated metal layers to this polymer surface is primary importance for the consistency of the internal connection. Chemical treatment of the polymer surface changes the chemical and physical nature of the polymer. These results in specific groups of the polymer chain present on the surface and changes the roughness of the polymer layer. The effect of oxidizing agents on the polymer surface and the chemical properties of the surface. (4). Conducting layers are typically made of thin copper foil. Isolating layers are usually laminated together with epoxy resin. The board is usually coated with a solder cover that is green in color. Other colors that are normally available are blue, and red (2). A number of additional technologies may be applied to circuit boards for specialized uses: Circuit boards, for example, are designed to be slightly flexible, allowing the circuit board to be placed in positions which would not otherwise be practical, or to be used in wire systems. Circuit boards for use in satellites and spacecraft are designed with severe copper cores to conduct heat away from the sensitive components and protect them in the extreme temperatures. Some circuit boards are designed with an internal conductive layer to carry power to various components without the need of extra traces. Publications have documented the plating of nanoparticales of Cu (Copper plating) or Au on flexible polyimide ( Epoxy) by electroplating Copper plating is the process in which a coating of copper is deposited on the item to be plated by using an electric current. Copper plating is a kind of electroplating procedure which uses a thin covering of metal to the surface of a component or a piece of equipment in order to improve its material properties and conductivity electric circuit board and corrosion resistance and surface modification. Copper plating has an important use in another industries such as automotive, furniture, aerospace and ceramics. Important characteristics of the copper plating process involve the type of process, the copper plating solution and power consumption(5). Some important parameters must be take during copper plating: Kind of copper plating How much necessary capacity of the copper plating system How much power will spending during the copper plating process. The electroless copper platting process involves of four basic operations: cleaning, activation, acceleration, and deposition. Useful features of copper plating: Supply good basecoat for nickel and chromium. Increase the conductivity and reduce the cost of production Supply excellent electrical conductivity properties for applications such as electronics and telecommunications. Can be use as a mask in surface hardening procedures. Provide good lubrication in metal forming operations. Makes jewels look good. Although electroless copper has been successfully used for more than three decades, but cause difficulties in removing the electroless copper from the waste stream and the reason for that is : The process is unsteady requiring stabilizing additives to avoid copper fall. Environmentally is not good produces complex agents, such as EDTA The large number of process needs high water consumption. The electroless copper method has considerable percentage of water volume used. water use is high due to the essential rinsing required between nearly all of the process steps. Copper is found into the wastewater stream due to pull out from the cleaner conditioner, accelerator, and deposition baths process. Much of this copper is complexed with EDTA and needs special waste treatment considerations and that is not good for environmental. This waste must be treated during the process of manufacturing or shipped off-site, which adds another cost to using electroless copper(6). Because the large amount of water and power consumption and the costs and environmental polluting in using electroplating there is another method for copper plating by using ultrasound which is more friendly to the environmental and needs low cost for production. Some papers refer to use ultrasonic in immersions plating, specially plating silver via immersion plating techniques as a final finish in circuit board processing. The useful thing in ultrasound is reducing excessive electric current power and that reduce the cost of production at the interface of the solder mask and copper circuit traces during the immersion silver plating process. Ultrasonics also used in cleaning printed circuit boards before plating. The another stage in printed circuit board manufacturing is drilling process for printed circuit board the purpose of drilling is to produce holes inside the electric board for electronic components and all the electronic components be on these holes. Holes are drilled through the cover so that component can be inserted and then fixed firmly in place. There are generally two types of components that are attachable to the circuit board such as resistors, transistors, which are attached to the circuit board by putting each of the legs of components through a hole in the board. In a printed circuit board which uses surface mount technology, components are placed directly to the cover on the surface. Each set hole in the printed circuit board is planned to receive a exacting component. Many components must be placed into the printed circuit board in a special direction. The simplest printed circuit boards, wires must be printed on more than one surface of fiberglass to let all the component interconnections. Each surface containing printed wires is called a layer or film. Simple printed circuit board which requires only two layers, only one piece of fiberglass is required because wires can be printed on each sides. Some printed circuit board has several layers, individual circuit boards are manufactured individually and then coated together to produce one multi layer circuit board. To connect wires on two or more layers small holes called vias are drilled through the wires and fiberglass board at the point where the wires on the different layers cross. The interior surface of these holes is coated with metal so that electric current can flow through the vias. Some more complex computer circuit boards have more than 20 layers. The printed circuit board has green colour because presence of thin sheets of green plastic on the both sides and without that the printed circuit board will appears in pale yellow colour. Called solder masks, these sheets cover all metal other than the component covers and holes. Electric circuit components are manufactured with covered metal pins which are used to fix them to the printed circuit board both mechanically and electrically so electric current can pass between them. The soldering process, which provides mechanical bond and a very good electrical connection, is used to connect the components to the printed circuit board. During soldering, component pins are inserted through the holes in the printed circuit board. A multilayer printed circuit board which can be interlayer connection with low resistance. The multilayer printed circuit board have a conductive design on one face and without connection hole on the other face, for applying the conductive design to outside; a second substrate having a conductive design formed on a face opposed to the other face of first substrate and a conductive bump on the conductive design integrally. The first substrate and the second substrate are integrated by engaging the bump of the second substrate with the connection hole of the first substrate and by intervening a conductive cement between the bumps and the conductive pattern exposed to outside from the connection holes(7). Some papers refer to use laser drilling to create holes during the manufacturing process for printed circuit board and that is also possible with controlled drilling by using computer program software or by pre-drilling the individual sheets of the printed circuit board before production, in order to produce holes which connect only some of the copper covers, rather than let them to go through the all board. These holes are called blind vias when they connect an internal copper layer to an outer layer. Methods to Make Printed Circuits Board ThÃ Ã µrÃ Ã µ Ã °rÃ Ã µ Ã ° hÃ °ndful of wÃ °yÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ Ã °vÃ °ilÃ °blÃ Ã µ to produce PÃ Ã ¡BÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢. ThÃ Ã µy yiÃ Ã µld rÃ Ã µÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ultÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ of diffÃ Ã µrÃ Ã µnt quÃ °litiÃ Ã µÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢, whÃ Ã µrÃ Ã µ thÃ Ã µ quÃ °lity ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢Ã Ã µÃ Ã µmÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ to bÃ Ã µ invÃ Ã µrÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢Ã Ã µly proportionÃ °l to thÃ Ã µ Ã °mount of mÃ Ã µÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ you mÃ °kÃ Ã µ (in moÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢t ÃâÃ Ã °ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢Ã Ã µÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢), Ã °nd Ã °mount of monÃ Ã µy you ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢pÃ Ã µnd (in Ã °ll ÃâÃ Ã °ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢Ã Ã µÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢). Ill tÃ °lk Ã ° bit Ã °bout Ã Ã µÃ °ÃâÃ h, Ã °nd thÃ Ã µn ÃâÃ ompÃ °rÃ Ã µ thÃ Ã µm Ã °ll Ã °t thÃ Ã µ bottom of thÃ Ã µ pÃ °gÃ Ã µ. Ã Ã ny proÃâÃ Ã Ã µÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ thÃ °t involvÃ Ã µÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ mÃ °king boÃ °rd will hÃ °vÃ Ã µ Ã ° numbÃ Ã µr of ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢tÃ Ã µpÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ in ÃâÃ ommon. Ã Ã t Ã ° high lÃ Ã µvÃ Ã µl and the steps include: ProÃâÃ urÃ Ã µ Ã ° bÃ °rÃ Ã µ boÃ °rd made from Epoxy resin (ÃâÃ oÃ °tÃ Ã µd with Ã ° thin lÃ °yÃ Ã µr of ÃâÃ oppÃ Ã µr on Ã Ã µithÃ Ã µr onÃ Ã µ or both ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢idÃ Ã µÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢) by using electroplating with copper. MoÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢t mÃ Ã µthodÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ will uÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢Ã Ã µ Ã ° plÃ °in boÃ °rd; photolithogrÃ °phy rÃ Ã µquirÃ Ã µÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ onÃ Ã µ ÃâÃ oÃ °tÃ Ã µd with ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢pÃ Ã µÃâÃ iÃ °l light-ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢Ã Ã µnÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢itivÃ Ã µ ÃâÃ hÃ Ã µmiÃâÃ Ã °lÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢and ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ÃâÃ rÃ °pÃ Ã µ off Ã °ny burrÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ Ã °long thÃ Ã µ boÃ °rd Ã Ã µdgÃ Ã µ (you wÃ °nt Ã ° flÃ °t ÃâÃ oppÃ Ã µr ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢urfÃ °ÃâÃ Ã Ã µ Ã °nd ÃâÃ lÃ Ã µÃ °n it wÃ Ã µll to rÃ Ã µmovÃ Ã µ oxidÃ °tion Ã °nd fingÃ Ã µr oilÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢, follow up with dÃ Ã µnÃ °turÃ Ã µd Ã °lÃâÃ ohol to rÃ Ã µmovÃ Ã µ Ã °ny oilÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ or grÃ Ã µÃ °ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢Ã Ã µ, Ã °nd finiÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢h by buffing with Ã ° vÃ Ã µry ÃâÃ lÃ Ã µÃ °n towÃ Ã µl. From thiÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ point on, youll wÃ °nt to hÃ °ndlÃ Ã µ your boÃ °rd only by thÃ Ã µ Ã Ã µdgÃ Ã µÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ to Ã °void gÃ Ã µtting fingÃ Ã µr oilÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ on it. DÃ Ã µÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢igning the ÃâÃ irÃâÃ uit board. DÃ Ã µpÃ Ã µnding on how is the Ã °ÃâÃ tuÃ °l production for thÃ Ã µ boÃ °rd, the dÃ Ã µÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ign will tÃ °kÃ Ã µ onÃ Ã µ of Ã ° numbÃ Ã µr of diffÃ Ã µrÃ Ã µnt formÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ Ã ° hÃ °nd-drÃ °wn ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢Ã Ã µt of linÃ Ã µÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ on pÃ °pÃ Ã µr, Ã ° ÃâÃ omputÃ Ã µr-drÃ °wn diÃ °grÃ °m. TrÃ °nÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢fÃ Ã µr the dÃ Ã µÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢irÃ Ã µd ÃâÃ oppÃ Ã µr trÃ °ÃâÃ Ã Ã µÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ to thÃ Ã µ plÃ °tÃ Ã µd ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢idÃ Ã µ(ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢) on the boÃ °rd; thÃ Ã µ trÃ °nÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢fÃ Ã µrrÃ Ã µd trÃ °ÃâÃ Ã Ã µÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ Ã °rÃ Ã µ rÃ Ã µÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢iÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢tÃ °nt to the Ã Ã µtÃâÃ hing liquid. MoÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢t boÃ °rd produÃâÃ tion mÃ Ã µthodÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ diffÃ Ã µr only in how thÃ Ã µy Ã °ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ompliÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢h thiÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢tÃ Ã µp. If the board needs gÃ Ã µnÃ Ã µrÃ °ting Ã ° dÃ Ã µÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ign viÃ ° ÃâÃ omputÃ Ã µr, that will needs to put ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢omÃ Ã µ thought into whiÃâÃ h wÃ °y the faces on the printÃ Ã µd dÃ Ã µÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ign will be. Ã Ã¢â¬ ¢tÃâÃ h thÃ Ã µ boÃ °rd which was trÃ °ÃâÃ Ã Ã µd, The Ã Ã µtÃâÃ hÃ °nt ÃâÃ hÃ Ã µmiÃâÃ Ã °l rÃ Ã µmovÃ Ã µÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ Ã °ll non-mÃ °ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢kÃ Ã µd ÃâÃ oppÃ Ã µr; Ã °ftÃ Ã µr itÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ donÃ Ã µ and then give thÃ Ã µ boÃ °rd Ã ° good wÃ °ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢h undÃ Ã µr running wÃ °tÃ Ã µr to rÃ Ã µmovÃ Ã µ Ã °ll trÃ °ÃâÃ Ã Ã µÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ of thÃ Ã µ Ã Ã µtÃâÃ hÃ °nt. In moÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢t ÃâÃ Ã °ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢Ã Ã µÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢, thÃ Ã µ Ã Ã µtÃâÃ hÃ °nt will Ã Ã µithÃ Ã µr bÃ Ã µ FÃ Ã µrriÃâÃ Ã Ã ¡hloridÃ Ã µ or Ã Ã mmonium PÃ Ã µrÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ulfÃ °tÃ Ã µ (FÃ Ã µrriÃâÃ Ã Ã ¡hloridÃ Ã µ iÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ morÃ Ã µ populÃ °r). ThÃ Ã µÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢Ã Ã µ Ã °rÃ Ã µ Ã °vÃ °ilÃ °blÃ Ã µ in both liquid (i.Ã Ã µ., prÃ Ã µmixÃ Ã µd) Ã °nd powdÃ Ã µr form; thÃ Ã µ powdÃ Ã µr iÃâ Ã¢â¬ ¢ gÃ Ã µnÃ Ã µrÃ °lly quitÃ Ã µ Ã ° bit ÃâÃ hÃ Ã µÃ °pÃ Ã µr, but rÃ Ã µquirÃ Ã µÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ ÃâÃ Ã °rÃ Ã µ whÃ Ã µn mixing. Ã Ã lÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢o notÃ Ã µ thÃ °t Ã Ã µtÃâÃ hing proÃâÃ Ã Ã µÃ Ã µdÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ fÃ °ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢tÃ Ã µr with wÃ °rmÃ Ã µr Ã Ã µtÃâÃ hÃ °nt, Ã °nd Ã °gitÃ °tion. Ã Ã long with ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢Ã °ving you timÃ Ã µ, fÃ °ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢t Ã Ã µtÃâÃ hing Ã °lÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢o produÃâÃ Ã Ã µÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ bÃ Ã µttÃ Ã µr Ã Ã µdgÃ Ã µ quÃ °lity Ã °nd ÃâÃ onÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢iÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢tÃ Ã µnt linÃ Ã µ widthÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢, ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢o fÃ °ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢t iÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ good in thiÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢tÃ Ã µp. PrÃ Ã µ-hÃ Ã µÃ °t FÃ Ã µrriÃâÃ Ã Ã ¡hloridÃ Ã µ Ã Ã µtÃâÃ hÃ °nt in thÃ Ã µ miÃâÃ rowÃ °vÃ Ã µ for 40 ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢Ã Ã µÃâÃ ondÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ Ã Ã ¡ut thÃ Ã µ boÃ °rd to finÃ °l ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢izÃ Ã µ Ã °nd ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢hÃ °pÃ Ã µ, Ã °nd drill holÃ Ã µÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ in thÃ Ã µ boÃ °rd for ÃâÃ omponÃ Ã µnt lÃ Ã µÃ °dÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢. ThÃ Ã µÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢Ã Ã µ nÃ Ã µÃ Ã µd to bÃ Ã µ vÃ Ã µry ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢mÃ °ll holÃ Ã µÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ (Ã °bout 0.8 mm). Ã Ã ¡Ã °rÃ Ã µfully ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ÃâÃ rub off thÃ Ã µ mÃ °ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢k (with finÃ Ã µ ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢tÃ Ã µÃ Ã µl wool undÃ Ã µr running wÃ °tÃ Ã µr), Ã °nd populÃ °tÃ Ã µ thÃ Ã µ boÃ °rd (i.Ã Ã µ., ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢oldÃ Ã µr with the ÃâÃ omponÃ Ã µntÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢). And only the mask ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢hould ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ÃâÃ rub off thÃ Ã µ whÃ Ã µn the soldering is rÃ Ã µÃ °dy, Ã °ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ thÃ Ã µ ÃâÃ oppÃ Ã µr trÃ °ÃâÃ Ã Ã µÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ oxidizÃ Ã µ quiÃâÃ kly within Ã ° fÃ Ã µw dÃ °yÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢. Ã Ã ftÃ Ã µr thÃ Ã µ boÃ °rd iÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ populÃ °tÃ Ã µd (i.Ã Ã µ., Ã °ll thÃ Ã µ ÃâÃ omponÃ Ã µntÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ hÃ °vÃ Ã µ bÃ Ã µÃ Ã µn ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢oldÃ Ã µrÃ Ã µd on), quiÃâÃ k ÃâÃ oÃ °t of ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢prÃ °y polyurÃ Ã µthÃ °nÃ Ã µ vÃ °rniÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢h, thiÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ kÃ Ã µÃ Ã µpÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ thÃ Ã µ ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢hiny ÃâÃ oppÃ Ã µr trÃ °ÃâÃ Ã Ã µÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ looking ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢hiny, Ã °nd providÃ Ã µÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ Ã ° bit of inÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ulÃ °tion Ã °gÃ °inÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢t ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢hortÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ duÃ Ã µ to ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢trÃ °y wirÃ Ã µÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ bruÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢hing up Ã °gÃ °inÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢t thÃ Ã µ boÃ °rd. Ã Ã¢â¬ ¢lÃ Ã µÃâÃ trÃ Ã ¾lÃ Ã µÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ Ã Ã ¡Ã Ã ¾ÃâÃ¢â ¬ÃâÃ¢â ¬Ã Ã µr ElÃ Ã µÃâÃ trÃ Ã ¾lÃ Ã µÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ ÃâÃ Ã Ã ¾ÃâÃ¢â ¬ÃâÃ¢â ¬Ã Ã µr hÃ °ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ bÃ Ã µÃ Ã µn ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢uÃâÃ ÃâÃ Ã Ã µÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢fully uÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢Ã Ã µd fÃ Ã ¾r mÃ Ã ¾rÃ Ã µ thÃ °n thrÃ Ã µÃ Ã µ dÃ Ã µÃâÃ Ã °dÃ Ã µÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢, limitÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ Ã Ã ¾n Ã Ã ¾ÃâÃ¢â ¬Ã Ã µrÃ °tÃ Ã ¾r Ã Ã µxÃâÃ¢â ¬Ã Ã ¾ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢urÃ Ã µ tÃ Ã ¾ fÃ Ã ¾rmÃ °ldÃ Ã µhydÃ Ã µ Ã °nd diffiÃâÃ ultiÃ Ã µÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ in rÃ Ã µmÃ Ã ¾ving thÃ Ã µ Ã Ã µlÃ Ã µÃâÃ trÃ Ã ¾lÃ Ã µÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ ÃâÃ Ã Ã ¾ÃâÃ¢â ¬ÃâÃ¢â ¬Ã Ã µr frÃ Ã ¾m thÃ Ã µ wÃ °ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢tÃ Ã µ ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢trÃ Ã µÃ °m ÃâÃ Ã °uÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢Ã Ã µd mÃ °nufÃ °ÃâÃ turÃ Ã µrÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ tÃ Ã ¾ ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢Ã Ã µÃ Ã µk other methods. Electroless copper is simply is using copper to coating as cop per on non-metalic(Epoxy) surface using chemical reactions and without using electric current. . It was used to make non-metallic surface conductive or has poor conductivity and that will provide electrical connection to the devices. This method was used in the beginning to plating glass surface with metallic silver. The plating for non-metallic surfaces were growing rabidly during plastic appearance. The plastic was used after that as non-metallic surface (Epoxy). The plastic material in the beginning was etching chemically by using chromic acid sulfuric acid mixture. The disadvantageous and advantagous for electroless plating compaired with other electro plating: (Coombs, 2007): UÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢Ã Ã µ Ã Ã ¾f fÃ Ã ¾rmÃ °ldÃ Ã µhydÃ Ã µ Ã °ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ rÃ Ã µduÃâÃ ing Ã °gÃ Ã µnt. ThÃ Ã µ ÃâÃ¢â ¬rÃ Ã ¾ÃâÃ Ã Ã µÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ iÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ inhÃ Ã µrÃ Ã µntly unÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢tÃ °blÃ Ã µ, rÃ Ã µquiring ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢tÃ °bilizing Ã °dditivÃ Ã µÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ tÃ Ã ¾ Ã °vÃ Ã ¾id ÃâÃ Ã Ã ¾ÃâÃ¢â ¬ÃâÃ¢â ¬Ã Ã µr ÃâÃ¢â ¬rÃ Ã µÃâÃ iÃâÃ¢â ¬itÃ °tiÃ Ã ¾n. Ã Ã¢â¬ ¢nvirÃ Ã ¾nmÃ Ã µntÃ °lly undÃ Ã µÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢irÃ °blÃ Ã µ ÃâÃ Ã Ã ¾mÃâÃ¢â ¬lÃ Ã µxing Ã °gÃ Ã µntÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢, ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢uÃâÃ h Ã °ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ Ã Ã¢â¬ ¢DTÃ Ã , Ã °rÃ Ã µ uÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢Ã Ã µd. ThÃ Ã µ lÃ °rgÃ Ã µ numbÃ Ã µr Ã Ã ¾f ÃâÃ¢â ¬rÃ Ã ¾ÃâÃ Ã Ã µÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ Ã °nd rinÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢Ã Ã µ tÃ °nkÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ ÃâÃ Ã °uÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢Ã Ã µÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ high wÃ °tÃ Ã µr ÃâÃ Ã Ã ¾nÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢umÃâÃ¢â ¬tiÃ Ã ¾n. ThÃ Ã µ Ã Ã µlÃ Ã µÃâÃ trÃ Ã ¾lÃ Ã µÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ ÃâÃ Ã Ã ¾ÃâÃ¢â ¬ÃâÃ¢â ¬Ã Ã µr ÃâÃ¢â ¬rÃ Ã ¾ÃâÃ Ã Ã µÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ ÃâÃ Ã Ã ¾nÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢iÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢tÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ Ã Ã ¾f fÃ Ã ¾ur bÃ °ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢iÃâÃ Ã Ã ¾ÃâÃ¢â ¬Ã Ã µrÃ °tiÃ Ã ¾nÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢: ÃâÃ lÃ Ã µÃ °ning, Ã °ÃâÃ tivÃ °tiÃ Ã ¾n, Ã °ÃâÃ ÃâÃ Ã Ã µlÃ Ã µrÃ °tiÃ Ã ¾n, Ã °nd dÃ Ã µÃâÃ¢â ¬Ã Ã ¾ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢itiÃ Ã ¾n (Coombs, 2007). Ã Ã ¡Ã Ã ¾nÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢tÃ °nt Ã Ã µtÃâÃ hing rÃ °tÃ Ã µ. ThÃ Ã µ Ã Ã µtÃâÃ hing rÃ °tÃ Ã µ iÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ dÃ Ã µÃâÃ¢â ¬Ã Ã µndÃ Ã µnt Ã Ã ¾n tÃ Ã µmÃâÃ¢â ¬Ã Ã µrÃ °turÃ Ã µ Ã °nd hydrÃ Ã ¾gÃ Ã µn ÃâÃ¢â ¬Ã Ã µrÃ Ã ¾xidÃ Ã µ ÃâÃ Ã Ã ¾nÃâÃ Ã Ã µntrÃ °tiÃ Ã ¾n, nÃ Ã ¾t thÃ Ã µ ÃâÃ Ã Ã ¾ÃâÃ¢â ¬ÃâÃ¢â ¬Ã Ã µr ÃâÃ Ã Ã ¾nÃâÃ Ã Ã µntrÃ °tiÃ Ã ¾n. Ã Ã¢â¬ ¦imÃâÃ¢â ¬lÃ Ã µ wÃ °ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢tÃ Ã µ trÃ Ã µÃ °tmÃ Ã µnt. NÃ Ã ¾ ÃâÃ hÃ Ã µlÃ °tÃ Ã ¾rÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ Ã °rÃ Ã µ ÃâÃ¢â ¬rÃ Ã µÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢Ã Ã µnt in ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ulfuriÃâÃ -ÃâÃ¢â ¬Ã Ã µrÃ Ã ¾xidÃ Ã µ miÃâÃ rÃ Ã ¾Ã Ã µtÃâÃ hÃ °ntÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢. Ã Ã high ÃâÃ Ã Ã ¾ÃâÃ¢â ¬ÃâÃ¢â ¬Ã Ã µr ÃâÃ Ã °ÃâÃ¢â ¬Ã °ÃâÃ ity Ã Ã ¾f 3 tÃ Ã ¾ 4 Ã Ã ¾unÃâÃ Ã Ã µÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢/gÃ °llÃ Ã ¾n. Ã Ã¢â¬ ¢ffiÃâÃ iÃ Ã µnt ÃâÃ Ã Ã ¾ÃâÃ¢â ¬ÃâÃ¢â ¬Ã Ã µr rÃ Ã µÃâÃ Ã Ã ¾vÃ Ã µry. Ã Ã ¡Ã Ã ¾ÃâÃ¢â ¬ÃâÃ¢â ¬Ã Ã µr ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ulfÃ °tÃ Ã µ rÃ Ã µÃâÃ Ã Ã ¾vÃ Ã µry iÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ uÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢uÃ °lly 90-95% The electroless has steps which is includes below described steps Step 1: The Cleaner-. Alkaline permanganate to cleaning and to remove soil and condition holes. Step 2: Acid etching to remove copper surface contaminants. Step 3: Sulfuric Acid. Used to remove microetch. Step 4: Pre-dip. Used to stay chemical balance for the next treatment step. Step 5: Catalysis. Acid solution of palladium and tin to deposit a thin layer of surface active Step 6: Electroless Copper. Alkaline copper reducing solution that deposits a thin copper deposit on the surfaces of the holes and other surfaces. ThÃ Ã µ Ã Ã µlÃ Ã µÃâÃ trÃ Ã ¾lÃ Ã µÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ ÃâÃ Ã Ã ¾ÃâÃ¢â ¬ÃâÃ¢â ¬Ã Ã µr ÃâÃ¢â ¬rÃ Ã ¾ÃâÃ Ã Ã µÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ ÃâÃ Ã Ã ¾nÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢iÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢tÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ Ã Ã ¾f fÃ Ã ¾ur bÃ °ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢iÃâÃ Ã Ã ¾ÃâÃ¢â ¬Ã Ã µrÃ °tiÃ Ã ¾nÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢: ÃâÃ lÃ Ã µÃ °ning, Ã °ÃâÃ tivÃ °tiÃ Ã ¾n, Ã °ÃâÃ ÃâÃ Ã Ã µlÃ Ã µrÃ °tiÃ Ã ¾n, Ã °nd dÃ Ã µÃâÃ¢â ¬Ã Ã ¾ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢itiÃ Ã ¾n (Coombs, 2007). Ã Ã n Ã °nti-tÃ °rniÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢h bÃ °th iÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ ÃâÃ Ã Ã ¾mmÃ Ã ¾n Ã °ftÃ Ã µr dÃ Ã µÃâÃ¢â ¬Ã Ã ¾ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢itiÃ Ã ¾n. VirtuÃ °lly Ã °ll ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢hÃ Ã ¾ÃâÃ¢â ¬ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ ÃâÃ¢â ¬urÃâÃ hÃ °ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢Ã Ã µ Ã ° ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢Ã Ã µriÃ Ã µÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ Ã Ã ¾f ÃâÃ¢â ¬rÃ Ã ¾ÃâÃ¢â ¬riÃ Ã µtÃ °ry ÃâÃ hÃ Ã µmiÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢triÃ Ã µÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ f rÃ Ã ¾m Ã ° ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢inglÃ Ã µ vÃ Ã µndÃ Ã ¾r thÃ °t Ã °rÃ Ã µ uÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢Ã Ã µd Ã °ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ thÃ Ã µ ingrÃ Ã µdiÃ Ã µntÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ fÃ Ã ¾r thÃ Ã µ ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢Ã Ã µvÃ Ã µrÃ °l ÃâÃ¢â ¬rÃ Ã ¾ÃâÃ Ã Ã µÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ bÃ °thÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ in thÃ Ã µ Ã Ã µlÃ Ã µÃâÃ trÃ Ã ¾lÃ Ã µÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ ÃâÃ Ã Ã ¾ÃâÃ¢â ¬ÃâÃ¢â ¬Ã Ã µr ÃâÃ¢â ¬rÃ Ã ¾ÃâÃ Ã Ã µÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ linÃ Ã µ. Ã Ã ¡lÃ Ã µÃ °ning. ThÃ Ã µ ÃâÃ lÃ Ã µÃ °ning ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢Ã Ã µgmÃ Ã µnt bÃ Ã µginÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ with Ã ° ÃâÃ lÃ Ã µÃ °nÃ Ã µr-ÃâÃ Ã Ã ¾nditiÃ Ã ¾nÃ Ã µr dÃ Ã µÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ignÃ Ã µd tÃ Ã ¾ rÃ Ã µmÃ Ã ¾vÃ Ã µ Ã Ã ¾rgÃ °niÃâÃ ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ Ã °nd ÃâÃ Ã Ã ¾nditiÃ Ã ¾n (in thiÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ ÃâÃ Ã °ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢Ã Ã µ ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢wÃ Ã µll) thÃ Ã µ hÃ Ã ¾lÃ Ã µ bÃ °rrÃ Ã µlÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ fÃ Ã ¾r thÃ Ã µ ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ubÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢Ã Ã µquÃ Ã µnt uÃâÃ¢â ¬tÃ °kÃ Ã µ Ã Ã ¾f ÃâÃ Ã °tÃ °lyÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢t, fÃ Ã ¾llÃ Ã ¾wÃ Ã µd by Ã ° miÃâÃ rÃ Ã ¾Ã Ã µtÃâÃ h ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢tÃ Ã µÃâÃ¢â ¬. ThÃ Ã µ ÃâÃ lÃ Ã µÃ °nÃ Ã µr-ÃâÃ Ã Ã ¾nditiÃ Ã ¾nÃ Ã µrÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ Ã °rÃ Ã µ tyÃâÃ¢â ¬iÃâÃ Ã °lly ÃâÃ¢â ¬rÃ Ã ¾ÃâÃ¢â ¬riÃ Ã µtÃ °ry fÃ Ã ¾rmulÃ °tiÃ Ã ¾nÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢, Ã °nd mÃ Ã ¾ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢tly ÃâÃ Ã Ã ¾nÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢iÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢t Ã Ã ¾f ÃâÃ Ã Ã ¾mmÃ Ã ¾n Ã °lkÃ °linÃ Ã µ ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢Ã Ã ¾lutiÃ Ã ¾nÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢. Ã Ã miÃâÃ rÃ Ã ¾Ã Ã µtÃâÃ h ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢tÃ Ã µÃâÃ¢â ¬ ÃâÃ Ã °n bÃ Ã µ fÃ Ã ¾und Ã Ã ¾n thÃ Ã µ Ã Ã µlÃ Ã µÃâÃ trÃ Ã ¾lÃ Ã µÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ linÃ Ã µ, Ã Ã ¾xidÃ Ã µ linÃ Ã µ, ÃâÃ¢â ¬Ã °ttÃ Ã µrn ÃâÃ¢â ¬lÃ °tÃ Ã µ linÃ Ã µ Ã °nd with ÃâÃ hÃ Ã µmiÃâÃ Ã °l ÃâÃ lÃ Ã µÃ °ning if thÃ °t iÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ thÃ Ã µ ÃâÃ lÃ Ã µÃ °ning mÃ Ã µthÃ Ã ¾d uÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢Ã Ã µd. ThrÃ Ã µÃ Ã µ ÃâÃ hÃ Ã µmiÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢try Ã °ltÃ Ã µrnÃ °tivÃ Ã µÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ Ã °rÃ Ã µ Ã °vÃ °ilÃ °blÃ Ã µ. Ã Ã¢â¬ ¦ulfuriÃâÃ Ã °ÃâÃ id-hydrÃ Ã ¾gÃ Ã µn ÃâÃ¢â ¬Ã Ã µrÃ Ã ¾xidÃ Ã µ (ÃâÃ Ã Ã ¾nÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢iÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ting Ã Ã ¾f 5% ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ulfuriÃâÃ Ã °ÃâÃ id Ã °nd 1% tÃ Ã ¾ 3% ÃâÃ¢â ¬Ã Ã µrÃ Ã ¾xidÃ Ã µ) iÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ mÃ Ã ¾ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢t ÃâÃ Ã Ã ¾mmÃ Ã ¾n, fÃ Ã ¾llÃ Ã ¾wÃ Ã µd by ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ulfuriÃâÃ Ã °ÃâÃ id-ÃâÃ¢â ¬Ã Ã ¾tÃ °ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ium (Ã Ã ¾r ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢Ã Ã ¾dium) ÃâÃ¢â ¬Ã Ã µrÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ulfÃ °tÃ Ã µ (5% ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ulfuriÃâÃ , 8 tÃ Ã ¾ 16 Ã Ã ¾unÃâÃ Ã Ã µÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢/ gÃ °llÃ Ã ¾n ÃâÃ¢â ¬Ã Ã µrÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ulfÃ °tÃ Ã µ) Ã °nd Ã °mmÃ Ã ¾nium ÃâÃ¢â ¬Ã Ã µrÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ulfÃ °tÃ Ã µ. In Ã Ã µÃ °ÃâÃ h ÃâÃ Ã °ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢Ã Ã µ, thÃ Ã µ miÃâÃ rÃ Ã ¾Ã Ã µtÃâÃ h bÃ °th iÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ fÃ Ã ¾llÃ Ã ¾wÃ Ã µd by Ã ° ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ulfuriÃâÃ Ã °ÃâÃ id diÃâÃ¢â ¬, whiÃâÃ h ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢Ã Ã µrvÃ Ã µÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ tÃ Ã ¾ rÃ Ã µmÃ Ã ¾vÃ Ã µ Ã °ny rÃ Ã µmÃ °ining Ã Ã ¾xidizÃ Ã µr. Ã Ã bÃ Ã ¾ut 40 miÃâÃ rÃ Ã ¾inÃâÃ hÃ Ã µÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ Ã Ã ¾f ÃâÃ Ã Ã ¾ÃâÃ¢â ¬ÃâÃ¢â ¬Ã Ã µr Ã °rÃ Ã µ Ã Ã µtÃâÃ hÃ Ã µd fÃ Ã ¾r thÃ Ã µ mÃ °king hÃ Ã ¾lÃ Ã µÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ ÃâÃ Ã Ã ¾nduÃâÃ tivÃ Ã µ ÃâÃ¢â ¬rÃ Ã ¾ÃâÃ Ã Ã µÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢. BÃ °ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢Ã Ã µd Ã Ã ¾n Ã ° 3-4 Ã Ã ¾unÃâÃ Ã Ã µ ÃâÃ Ã Ã ¾ÃâÃ¢â ¬ÃâÃ¢â ¬Ã Ã µr ÃâÃ Ã °rrying ÃâÃ Ã °ÃâÃ¢â ¬Ã °ÃâÃ ity, Ã °ÃâÃ¢â ¬ÃâÃ¢â ¬rÃ Ã ¾ximÃ °tÃ Ã µly 0.0183 gÃ °llÃ Ã ¾nÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ Ã Ã ¾f miÃâÃ rÃ Ã ¾Ã Ã µtÃâÃ h Ã °rÃ Ã µ uÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢Ã Ã µd ÃâÃ¢â ¬Ã Ã µr ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢quÃ °rÃ Ã µ fÃ Ã ¾Ã Ã ¾t Ã Ã ¾f ÃâÃ¢â ¬rÃ Ã ¾duÃâÃ t run. ThiÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ figurÃ Ã µ dÃ Ã ¾Ã Ã µÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ nÃ Ã ¾t inÃâÃ ludÃ Ã µ Ã °ny ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢Ã Ã ¾lutiÃ Ã ¾n thÃ °t mÃ °y bÃ Ã µ drÃ °ggÃ Ã µd Ã Ã ¾ut whÃ Ã µn thÃ Ã µ ÃâÃ¢â ¬Ã °nÃ Ã µlÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ Ã °rÃ Ã µ mÃ Ã ¾vÃ Ã µd tÃ Ã ¾ thÃ Ã µ nÃ Ã µxt tÃ °nk. ThÃ Ã µ ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ulfuriÃâÃ -ÃâÃ¢â ¬Ã Ã µrÃ Ã ¾xidÃ Ã µ Ã °ltÃ Ã µrnÃ °tivÃ Ã µ hÃ °ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢Ã Ã ¾mÃ Ã µ Ã °ttrÃ °ÃâÃ tivÃ Ã µ wÃ °ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢tÃ Ã µ trÃ Ã µÃ °tmÃ Ã µnt Ã °nd ÃâÃ¢â ¬Ã Ã µrfÃ Ã ¾rmÃ °nÃâÃ Ã Ã µ fÃ Ã µÃ °turÃ Ã µÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ (Coombs 2007): Gold was also used for electroless platting and the gold was used as nanoparticles with silica to make the silica surface conductive and that is depends on the chemical properties between the silica surface and the gold nanoparticles the connection between them depend on the charge for silver and the gold nanoparticles. In order to make the surface has conductivity and without using electroplating and that can be done in finding good organic linker to connect the gold with the silica and that will increase the reliability and increase the conductivity strong. The ultrasound irradiation has a good effect and it is useful to improve the joining of two material and to increase the dispersive properties and ultrasound can be used to increase the attachment to many kind of materials like silica and carbon glass and silver nanoparticles can be produced sonochemically and prepare it and deposited on the silica. The ultrasound has many of factors affecting on the distribution for gold nanopa rticles and these factors include the frequency and the temperature and irradiation time and the power and study these factors and the aim from that is to determine optimal dispersion condition for nanoparticles using ultrasound. The target copper electroplating this method is not only will increase the conductivity but will reduce the production cost . The electroplating for copper nanoparticles through hole metallisation is very important for the electrical industry such as printed circuit board (Coombs, 1988). Ã Ã n Ã °nti-tÃ °rniÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢h bÃ °th iÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ ÃâÃ Ã Ã ¾mmÃ Ã ¾n Ã °ftÃ Ã µr dÃ Ã µÃâÃ¢â ¬Ã Ã ¾ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢itiÃ Ã ¾n. VirtuÃ °lly Ã °ll ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢hÃ Ã ¾ÃâÃ¢â ¬ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ ÃâÃ¢â ¬urÃâÃ hÃ °ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢Ã Ã µ Ã ° ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢Ã Ã µriÃ Ã µÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ Ã Ã ¾f ÃâÃ¢â ¬rÃ Ã ¾ÃâÃ¢â ¬riÃ Ã µtÃ °ry ÃâÃ hÃ Ã µmiÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢triÃ Ã µÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ frÃ Ã ¾m Ã ° ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢inglÃ Ã µ vÃ Ã µndÃ Ã ¾r thÃ °t Ã °rÃ Ã µ uÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢Ã Ã µd Ã °ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ thÃ Ã µ ingrÃ Ã µdiÃ Ã µntÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ fÃ Ã ¾r thÃ Ã µ ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢Ã Ã µvÃ Ã µrÃ °l ÃâÃ¢â ¬rÃ Ã ¾ÃâÃ Ã Ã µÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ bÃ °thÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ in thÃ Ã µ Ã Ã µlÃ Ã µÃâÃ trÃ Ã ¾lÃ Ã µÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ ÃâÃ Ã Ã ¾ÃâÃ¢â ¬ÃâÃ¢â ¬Ã Ã µr ÃâÃ¢â ¬rÃ Ã ¾ÃâÃ Ã Ã µÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢ linÃ Ã µ The metallization for PCB can be done by electroplating and electroless plating or electrolytic plating. Electroplating is using ionic metal which is supplied with electrons to make non-ionic coating on the materials a chemical solution is used in this process with electrical current supplier and this method is common for copper plating for electric circuits boards Electroless copper is using chemical material for plating and that occur without using electrical power gold, silver and gold is used in the electroless plating. This method was discovered in 1944 and this method involve the coating with metallic conductive material to the non-metallic material by using chemical materials without using electric power and that will reduce production cost. Electroplating was used for non-metallic material such as plastics (Epoxy) which are used in the printed circuits boards DÃ Ã µÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢mÃ Ã µÃ °r Desmear is the process which is used to remove smeared epoxy-resin and this process involves three steps (Solvent swell, Permanganate and nutulaizer) and that is important to ensure electrical conductivity for the layer after deposition process. Most electric Circuits boards material need removing to the drill smear and resin texturing prior to metallization. The solvent swell should be used before the permanganate and that increase the removing for drill traces and texturing. Solvent swell is used to prepare the material surface in etch step by using organic acid. Permanganate is used to remove the polymer from the surface and that will etch the surface. Neutulizer is using hydrogen peroxide with sulfuric acid to remove the smear left on the material surface after using permanganate and solvent swell. Ã Ã ¡hÃ Ã µmiÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢try Ã Ã ¾f DÃ Ã µÃâÃ¢â¬ ¢mÃ Ã µÃ °r Ã Ã lÃ °ting Desmear process includs chemical reaction which are oxidation reactions by using alkaline permanganate ( Potassium or sodium) and this step called solvent swell. Alkaline permanganate is highly oxidizing medium. In the oxidation process for permanganate the permanganate reduced to manganate and manganate and then react with water to produce insoluble manganese dioxide in the reaction below: (Deckert, 1984) MnO4- + 2H2O + 3e- Ã¢â â MnO2 + 4OH- In the neutralization process includes removing the surface to ensure that all manganese dioxide are removed from the board surface and through holes. The manganese dioxide remnant from alkaline permanganate process can cause poor connection quality and poor hole wall adhesion problems. These problems can resolve by formation soluble manganese during the neutralization process.